Revised February 5, 2017
U.S. and UK Military Service
UK & World War I
Taking an Official Name in WW I
UK & World War II
U.S. & World War I
U.S. & World War II - View World War II Correspondence
Prisoners of War (POWs) in WWII - View Photos of POWS in TTT Photo Gallery
The Price of Conscience - Conscientious Objection
UK - WORLD WAR I: On August 4, 1914, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland declared war on Germany, and World War I began. At this time, all of Ireland was a part of the UK. When the war trumpets sounded in Britain, the echoes carried to the corners of the British Empire. New Zealand, Australia, Canada and even Boer leaders in South Africa rallied to the Allied cause. Previous chapters provide military details for the countries of Canada, Chapter 32; New Zealand, Chapter 33; Australia, Chapter 34, and Great Britain, Chapter 26. The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was more than 38 million.
Great Britain required all men of military age to register. Military service was divided into combatant and noncombatant service. The choices were: (1) become a soldier bearing arms (combatant); (2) serve in noncombatant military service (would not bear arms), or (3) refuse to serve in any capacity (absolutist, who were imprisoned). John Long wrote:
"About that time, Conscription was in force by law in England and young men of every rank and age from 21 to 40 were compelled to go into military service, except a clause in the act exempting conscientious objectors from active service; but compelling them to undertake service attached to war; thus genuine conscientious objectors were under the condemnation of the law while refusing to have anything to do with war and many good Christian young men were sent to prison and some were badly treated; some confined for two years, not to the credit of England..." (Journal, Feb. 1916).
CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION: The term "Conscientious Objector" (abbreviated as "C.O.,") refers to a person who refuses on moral or religious grounds to conform to the government's requirements to bear arms in a military conflict or to serve in the armed forces. During each war, each country has its own particular regulations concerning military service and conscientious objectors, and they vary considerably. For instance, in World War II, Great Britain and U.S. allowed Conscientious Objectors, while France and Germany executed them, and New Zealand imprisoned them.
World War I was the first time war and military service had been encountered since the 2x2 Church began. Decisions had to be made. Should they take a Pacifist stand? Would the male Workers be allowed a Minister of Religion exemption, or serve in the military? What military classification should the 2x2 men select?
The recommendations varied of Overseers in various countries. Some encouraged the professing men to serve as noncombatants (C.O.s), others to follow their consciences. For a time in Canada, there was no provision for C.O.s and the 2x2 men were imprisoned, but later they were allowed to perform noncombatant work. In New Zealand, the 2x2 men refused to serve in any capacity (were absolutists) and were imprisoned (See Chapter 33).
Why do most 2x2 men elect to serve as noncombatants? To be Conscientious Objectors? Many American 2x2 men specifically requested noncombatant service. They were willing to serve in some military capacity, so long as they were not required to kill.
They see their church as a worldwide family of individuals united around common beliefs and practices who have no conceivable reason to kill each other. A tenant of their faith is to love their brothers and sisters in Christ, regardless of their nationality, and violence within their fellowship is an abomination to them. As a combatant soldier bearing arms, it is conceivable that some 2x2 men could kill other 2x2 men who were serving in opposing armies. Some 2x2 soldiers saw it as inconsistent to profess to love their brothers and yet go to war bearing arms against them. The following scriptures are often cited as reasons:
(1) Thou shalt not kill (Matthew 5:21)
(2) Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord, I will repay (Romans 12:19)
(3) Christ’s teaching to turn the other cheek (Matt 5:39)
(4) Christ’s admonition to Peter to put up his sword (John 18:11)
(5) If my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight (John 18:16).
UK - TAKING AN OFFICIAL NAME: In some countries during WWI, it was necessary for men to provide the name of their religion in order to apply for a noncombatant classification (to refuse to bear arms). This presented a problem since the 2x2 Church had no official name. Ed Cooney wrote, "Willie Gill...said, ‘Let us take the name we call ourselves by 'The Testimony of Jesus.' " (Edward Cooney’s Testimony from Selected Letters Hymns and Poems of Edward Cooney 1867-1960, edited by Roberts, pp. 43-45). It appears they followed Willie's suggestion, for the March 23, 1917 London Daily Mail reported a London Southwestern Police Court session in which Brother Worker Hay Halkett was granted an military service exemption as a Minister of the "Testimony of Jesus," a recognized religious denomination.
In 1914, Ed Cooney went to London to intercede for the men of military age in the 2x2 Church. He was not successful in securing an exemption for the Friends, some of whom went to prison. However, he was able to arrange for the Brother Workers to be exempted as Ministers of Religion. (Life & Ministry of Edward Cooney by Roberts, p. 119).
UK - WORLD WAR II: In 1939, Great Britain began conscription. The National Service Act of 1939 established a separate Register for Conscientious Objectors, and objection could be for any reason. The British regulations for C.O.s were the most humanitarian in the world.
OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES: In World Wars I and II, and up until the 1960s, France, Germany and Belgium had no legal provision for Conscientious Objectors, who were considered traitors, and some faced the firing squad. Reportedly, Orin Taylor, Head Worker of France in WWII, advised the men to take up arms, but not to kill, and instead, to fire in the air over the enemy’s heads.
"it is remarkable that hardly any provisions for conscientious objectors existed in the laws of Continental Europe’s major nations....However, by the beginning of WW2, formal recognition of the objection on the Continent [Europe] seems to have been confined to Scandinavia and the Netherlands" (Conscription of Conscience – The American State and the Conscientious Objector 1940-1947 by Mulford Q. Sibley and Philip E. Jacob, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY, 1952, pp. 2-3, 16).
Some German Friends and Workers were imprisoned. It started when a German Brother Worker refused to become a soldier in the summer of 1942:
"We knew very well when our Brother Fritz Schwille was called to arms and refused to become a soldier and had to appear before a war tribunal that it would bring trouble and suffering to all of us. He was sentenced to death. His sister Frieda and I visited him twice in Berlin...then in the fall of '42 our whole church was prohibited any more Meetings, no coming together, no letter writing, no visits, and the Workers were forced to work in factories, etc....In June 1944, the Gestapo arrested Frieda Schwille, sister of Fritz, and a week later the Larderer girls and myself [Pauline Schnitzer]. The 72-year-old aunt of Fritz and his cousin and some others were also arrested and put into prison. We were taken to Stuttgart..." (A Little of my Experiences at Stuttgart by Pauline Schnitzer).
The Laderer sisters wrote, "Poor Frieda [Schwille] always had the feeling she would not come home and ten days after our release, she was taken to 'Dachau' and had to give her life." Frieda was killed by the Gestapo on Nov. 30, 1944. For a time it was thought that Fritz was executed, but was discovered that he had been captured by the Soviet Army on the Eastern Front in 1942 and sent to a Siberia POW labor camp, where he served on the Russian front as a stretcher bearer, and died in 1943. (Read Account of Luise and Sofie Laderer's Prison Experiences in WWII). German Brother Worker, Werner Gebhardt, Fritz's last companion, was sent to a concentration camp for two years.
U.S. - WORLD WAR I: The U.S. did not join its allies Britain, France, and Russia until April 6, 1917, and the war ended on November 11, 1918, one year and seven months later. The draft (conscription) was introduced on May 18, 1917, and all American men from 21 to 30 years of age were required to register.
"Classification is the process of determining who is available for military service and who is deferred or exempted. Classifications are based on each individual registrant's circumstances and beliefs. A classification program would go into effect when Congress and the President decide to resume a draft. Then, men who are qualified for induction would have the opportunity to file a claim for exemptions, deferments, and postponements from military service."
"Conscientious Objector: Conscientiously opposed to training and military service requiring the use of arms - fulfills his service obligation in a noncombatant position within the military. Those classified 1-A-O are conscientious objectors available for noncombatant military service" (https://www.sss.gov/Classifications).
For each war, a new Selective Service Act (body of regulations) was enacted and used. Regarding Conscientious Objection, the Selective Service Act of 1917 allowed only those who were members of a "well-recognized" religious sect or organizations whose creeds forbade participation in war, and they were required to perform alternative, non-combatant service. The Author has not located any documentation indicating the Workers registered a name for their Church in the U.S during WWI, so it would not have been "well recognized." In World War I, of the 2,810,296 men inducted into the U.S. armed forces, approximately 4,000 were Conscientious Objectors.
"The men who claimed exemption as conscientious objectors during the First World War were a varied group. The ranks of the Quakers and Mennonites had been swelled by new waves of immigration that brought Molokans, Doukhabours, Seventh Day Adventists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Russellites and Christadelphians, and the Hutterian, Plymouth and River Brethren to the U.S." (Conscience in America–A Documentary History of Conscientious Objection in America 1757-1967; pub 1968; Edited by Lillian Schlissel, pp. 129-130).
Those who refused to serve in the military in any capacity were called "Absolutists." Some believed going to prison was less damaging to their souls than war and considered their refusal to serve as "holy disobedience." Some Absolutists refused to work while in prison, believing the work assigned to them amounted to the noncombatant service they had refused, since it relieved other men to do the work they conscientiously opposed. These were sent to one of the three U.S. federal military prisons, of which Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, was the largest.
Regarding American professing 2x2 men in WWI, Lewis Murray, wrote, "At that time, there were no provisions made for Conscientious Objectors, like there is today, and it wasn't clear what a person should do when they were drafted. I finally said I would go and accept the equipment, all except the gun, and would take my stand as a C.O." Lewis suffered considerably, was beaten several times to force him to bear arms, and was finally allowed to care for the horses. After his discharge, he entered the Work. Another professing C.O., Earl Huckleberry, refused the uniform and gun, and was sent to prison in Ft. Leavenworth, where he made tents. Oliver Taylor, a professing C.O. with medical experience, became a medic (A Few of Lewis Murray's experiences in WWI).
U.S. - WORLD WAR II began on Sept. 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland. About two years later on Dec. 7, 1941, after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the U.S. entered the War on both fronts. World War II was fought on six of the seven continents and on all the seas for three years and eight months. The European Theater ended May 7, 1945, when the Germans surrendered to the Allies. The Pacific Theater ended with the surrender of the Japanese on Aug. 15, 1945. Over sixty million people died as a result of World War II.
On September 16, 1940, the U.S. instituted the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, and began requiring all men between the ages of 21 and 45 to register for the draft. Some were barely 18 when they were inducted and some had not yet graduated from high school. There were no educational deferments. "Everybody" went–very few escaped.
The new Act of 1940 was an improvement over World War I, in that the requirement for C.O.s was broadened from those who were members of "well recognized" religious organizations whose creeds forbade participation in war, to also include who "by reason of religious training and belief." It was no longer necessary to be a member of an anti-war church, however, the law specifically denied a C.O. classification to those who did not believe in a Supreme Being.
The request for classification as a Conscientious Objector went before an autonomous local Selective Service Board. Some boards approved requests for C.O. status almost automatically, while others automatically denied them. Some boards were hostile to Objectors, and some boards discriminated against them. Some C.O. papers disappeared or were ignored, and many struggled to acquire C.O. classification. A few 2x2 veterans related difficulty obtaining their C.O. classifications (WWII Reunion Memory Books).
In World Wars I and II, the U.S. and UK allowed C.O.s to substitute for combat service: (1) noncombatant military service; assignments requiring no carrying or use of arms (C.O.) (2) nonmilitary activity related to the war effort, or (3) work of national importance (Civilian Public Service, abbreviated CPS).
During World War II in the U.S., over 10,000,000 men were inducted, with the total number of C.O.s being approximately 43,000. Most C.O.s were Mennonites, Church of the Brethren, Quakers (Friends), Roman Catholics, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Christadelphians, with Seventh-Day Adventist being the largest group. The Jehovah’s Witnesses were Absolutists, and were the largest group to be imprisoned.
On their outside, C.O.s were not distinguishable from combatants, and their C.O. status was often unknown by fellow soldiers. They were not required to carry arms or to be trained in their use, and outside of this exception, they were in all other ways regular members of the army. They wore the army uniform, received army pay and dependency allowances, were under army discipline, and received the usual military awards. In Jan. 25, 1943, the Secretary of War declared that all noncombatants would be assigned to medical units, unless requested otherwise. They were not kept from the front lines, and they faced all the dangers that ordinary soldiers faced. A man who was a C.O. medic wrote:
“So instead of having a state of the art weapon to defend yourself, you got this really neat red cross target on your helmet and a conspicuous white arm band with a red cross, as well. These made sure that the enemy would know for certain that here were targets that had no means of defending themselves and might have supplies that would be useful. But to the wounded, you were like a god. And over time, you learned a lot of tricks that did help get people back home.“
Geo. Walker, Overseer of Eastern U.S., wrote a Statement on behalf of the Brother Workers dated March 24, 1942, for the U.S. Selective Service System "for the purpose of enabling the Local Draft Boards to correctly classify Ministers of this Church throughout the United States who are subject to the Selective Service Laws." The Author assumes he was successful, and that the Brother Workers were given Ministerial Exemption.
U.S. REGISTRATION OF ASSEMBLIES: Sometime around the beginning of World War II, it appears that a law was made in the U.S. and Canada that all religious gatherings of 5 to 7 people must register as a religious body with the government. Jack Carroll provided the 2x2 membership statistics:
"In the light of the above definition by Colonel C. Dargusch and the fact there are in the United States approximately: 3000 Assemblies of Christians meeting for worship and breaking of bread in homes of members. 900 Ministers—men and women devoting all their time to evangelistic and other church work. 100 Christian Conventions of four days duration each year with an average attendance of from 350-500. I submit to you that as a body of Christians we are entitled to recognition" (letter by Walter Rittenhouse and Will Sweetland of San Diego, California, July 16, 1954, to Jack, Willie and Brethren).
It was through Geo. Walker that "Christian Conventions" became recognized as a "church, religious sect or a religious organization" within the Selective Service System in 1942:
"This Headquarters has issued a predetermination that Christian Conventions is a recognized church, religious sect, or a religious organization, within the meaning of Section 622.44 of the Selective Service Regulations. This predetermination was based upon information procured directly from officials of the church; namely George Walker (overseer), 2350 East Susquahanna Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and others. This necessity came out of the fact that the organization was not included by the Bureau of Census, United States Department of Commerce, in its publication, Religious Bodies-1936" (Major Neal M. Wherry letter to O. D. Hawkins, Nov. 22, 1946. (See copy in TTT Photo Gallery) (Read retyped copy)
The Workers prepared a Certificate of Membership (a form letter) on their official letterhead for "Christian Conventions – Assemblies of Christians Assuming This Name Only." It stated that (name of 2x2 professing male) was a sincere member in good standing and was signed by a Senior Brother Worker. (View Certificate.) This verification of membership was used to facilitate applications for C.O. classification I-A-O.
In World War II, American Ministers of Religion were entitled to complete exemption (Classification IV-D), and were not required to serve in the U.S. armed forces. An undated, unsigned letter, probably written by Jack Carroll, explained the nature of the Work of the Brother Workers, who were "ordained" Ministers applying for a ministerial exemption:
"The Ministers of this body of Christians and representative members of each local group assemble annually in Conventions…At these annual Conventions, young men desiring to enter the Ministry and devote their lives to the preaching of the Gospel have their qualifications considered and if counted worthy of a place in the Ministry, are ordained, given a definite field of labor, in fellowship with, and under the guidance and instruction of an older Minister. Ministers are supported by the free will offerings of the members of these Assemblies of Christians" (letter on Western Christian Convention Stationery) (Read typed copy).
During WWII, the Rocky Mountains divided the 2x2 Church members into two territories with two Overseers. It appears that most 2x2 men from the Eastern U.S. under Geo. Walker's oversight, elected to be C.O.s, and were under the impression that it was a universal tenant of their Church to do so. However, the 2x2 men residing in the Western U.S. and Canada under Jack Carroll's oversight were given "liberty of conscience" as to how they served in the military. Jack stated:
"Each child of God here will have to decide for himself or herself the form of service they will render. We feel we cannot make a hard and fast law for any in this matter or interfere with the individual liberty of any child of God...we would like to repeat we are not making any ruling, but leave it to the individual Christian to decide what he can do and how he can best serve his country at the present time" (Statement by J.T.C. [Jack Carroll], Theodore, Saskatchewan, Canada, July 14, 1940. (Read Statement)."We encourage all, young and old, to loyally serve their country and Government in some way at this time. All are individually responsible for deciding the form of service they will render. Liberty of conscience is given to each and all. The form of service rendered is a personal and individual matter, and whether called to serve in the non-combatant or combatant capacity, no difference is made in our relationship or Fellowship as brethren in Christ. Some of our brethren are serving in the Navy, some in different branches of the Army and Air Forces, as well as in the Medical Corps. Certificates of membership, when necessary, will be given..." (Statement by John T. Carroll, Olympia, Washington, Sept. 4-7, 1942 (Read Statement).
Since 1980, there has been no draft in America. Some young 2x2 young men have voluntarily enlisted in the military; possibly because jobs were scarce and also to receive military funding for higher education. The 2x2 men who voluntarily enlisted in the military are not C.O.s, and if called to serve in a war, they would be classed as combatants. Currently "Almost all male U.S. citizens and male immigrants, who are 18 through 25, are required to register with Selective Service" (Selective Service System, http://www.sss.gov).
WWII PRISONERS OF WAR (POWS): Arthur Shearer from NSW, Australia was in Malaya when the Japanese invaded in Jan. 1942, and was imprisoned with Brother Workers Archie Wilson, Alec Mitchell and later Bert Cameron in the Changi Prison Camp in Singapore until mid 1945. (Link to notes where Alex mentions being a POW.)
Four Dutch South African Workers who had been preaching in Bandenoeng, (West Java) Indonesia, were imprisoned in Indonesia in WWII when the Japanese landed there on March 1, 1942. For 3-1/2 years, while Bernard Frommolt and Willem Boshoff were imprisoned, they held gospel Meetings and several professed. The Sister Workers, Gertie Maree and Esther Loots, were allowed to go free until 1942, when they too went to prison camp. They all survived.
Edith Hanson and Alma Lee were arrested on Oct. 14, 1942, as foreign naturals when the Germans invaded Norway during WWII. They were held in captivity in Germany and released in 1945. Some Workers in the Netherlands were also imprisoned by Germans, including Matilda Smeenk. The Japanese imprisoned Willem Boshoff (South African) and his companion in Java, Indonesia, during WWII. Jack Carroll said at a California Convention around 1942:
"The two workers in Hong Kong, Tom Fowler and companion, are in the hands of the enemy. His companion was quite badly treated--two ribs and a wrist broken, but is recovered now. Tom wrote that he still weighs 145 lbs. All who know him know that his usual weight is around 190 lbs.
"Two brothers and two sisters were captured when the Island of Java fell. Two brothers taken prisoners in Singapore. Several workers in Burma able to get away from Gangoon and are now safe and at work in India. Through the British Red Cross, touch has been established with the workers in Greece. All are safe, One lone sister worker is holding the fort in unoccupied France, doing what she can to strengthen the Lord's little flock there. Also one sister in Belgium. The 14 workers new in Holland able to carry on much as usual.
"There are four in Denmark, but their movements are somewhat restricted. In Norway and Sweden, they were able to have their conventions much as usual. One brother in Czechoslovakia, who was interned for a while. Two brothers are interned in Germany. Another one…was under sentence of death for several months, then suddenly given his freedom with no explanation. 14 workers at present in Germany--somewhat hindered but may have meetings in homes. One brother worker in Warsaw, Poland. He was captured twice, first by one side, then by the other. Now he is free. There are two workers in Egypt and two in Syria."
U.S. POWS: Some American servicemen stationed in the Philippines in WWII became POWS, and survived the Bataan Death March were Adrian Oldham, Phillip Parrish of Wisconsin and Marcelo G. Jomok (World War II Reunion Memory Book; Sparks, NV, April 13-15, 1999; p. 14). A few 2x2s died in the war, including the brother of the late Overseer, William Lewis.
On July 8, 1944, four Brother Workers were imprisoned in the Philippines at Los Banos Internment Camp,
formerly an agricultural school campus,
located about 40 miles south of Manilla, along with many other American missionaries, priests and nuns. They were Willie Jamieson from Chirnside, Scotland; Leo Stancliff of Bakersfield, California; Cecil Barrett of England who had immigrated to New Zealand; and Herman Beaber of Hydesville, California. Photo of California Workers in 1940, before the war.
Ernest Stanley from Ab Lench, near Evesham, England, was taken captive but not imprisoned. When the war broke out, Cecil and Ernest were in Japan and moved to the Philippines. Ernest became an interpreter for the Japanese, and was able to be very helpful to the other four Workers in prison. There are accounts by and about all five Workers that have been widely distributed, including Herman's Diary, which are available on the website: Deliverance – It has come! This site is owned by John S. Beaber, Herman's son. The late Herman Beaber was the Author's uncle.
While Herman's diary does not record that any of the four Workers were tortured physically, they all, except for Ernest, nearly starved, had beriberi and were anemic when released. In 1940, when Herman left the U.S., he was 6' 3" and weighed 202 lbs. When he was rescued in 1945, he weighed 140 lbs. Herman wrote in his diary for Dec. 11, 1941, "Several of our friends from Pinagkaisahan are fighting in the front lines." Apparently, the Philippine Friends were not classified as noncombatants, and this option may have been unavailable. It has been suggested that there was no ban on radio in the 2x2 Church under Jack Carroll's oversight, so they could learn about news and current events regarding the Pacific War Theater that might affect the California Workers Herman, Leo and Willie.
On February 23, 1945, American soldiers liberated over 2,100 Allied civilian and military internees from the Los Banos, Prison in a daring guerilla and paratrooper rescue, just one day before they were all to be executed by the Japanese. Herman wrote:
"at 7:00 a.m. sharp, we heard and saw nine large transport planes flying low, and passing close to the camp; perhaps one mile to the east. Even as we all watched, we saw doors open and paratroopers came tumbling out. OH! WHAT A SIGHT! With a tropical sunrise for a background, we saw about 150 parachutes open one after another and settle slowly earthward out of our sight behind the distant trees. We knew help had come but had little time to contemplate this good, even before rifle fire commenced to the west of our camp. It was guerillas with American Officers who had been waiting there for hours...Bullets whizzed and buzzed through the camp. I was hugging the floor, looking out under the large crack beneath the door at the Filipinos and Americans sneaking into the camp, their rifles ready. The guerillas...defeated the Japs in quick order. It was over in less than an hour. All the Japanese guards were killed, I believe. Planes hovered overhead. As the firing died down a bit, we heard the roar of motors...then we saw the large amphibious tractors (amtracs)...that had come across the water, down the lake, for the express purpose of rescuing us. Deliverance – It has come!"The March 5, 1945, issue of "Life Magazine" (pp. 25-29) ran a story titled "Santo Tomas is Delivered." On pages 26-27, are photos of the Brother Worker, Ernest Stanley, "a missionary who worked as an interpreter during the talks between Colonel Brady and the Japanese." Ernest married a Japanese singer who professed for a short time, took up residence in Japan and adopted a son. He died a 2x2 in 1990 and his wife also died that year. Reportedly, Ernest's loyalty was questioned after the war by U.S. officials, but he was completely exonerated and praised.
View Photo taken soon after the Workers were rescued on February 23, 1945 After their release, all but Ernest Stanley returned to the Work. Herman continued to preach in the Philippines, left the Work in 1951, married Blanche Berry from Henderson, Texas (the Author’s aunt), and adopted two children. He died Feb. 5, 2001, aged 93, and was buried in Laurel Land Cemetery in Dallas, Texas. Willie Jamieson succeeded Jack Carroll as Overseer of the Western U.S. and passed away Oct. 11, 1974, aged 93. He is buried at Pacific Crest Cemetery, Redondo Beach, California. According to the October 17, 1974, Whittier Daily News, 2,500 people attended his funeral. Leo continued to preach in the Philippines, Guam and other South Pacific Islands, and passed away in Oct. 2005. Cecil Barrett preached in Japan until 1964, when he returned home to NZ where he preached until his death in 1968, aged 65.
OTHER WARS: During the first Civil War in Liberia (1989-1996), John Johnston from Ireland, later Overseer of Romania and Wyngrove Carter, from Barbados, were held captive several months by rebel forces and threatened with death frequently. Several of the Friends were killed in this war.
During the Peru-Ecuador War in 1995, Aníbal Zárate and Rojano González were imprisoned in Ecuador for several months and were accused of being Peruvian spies. They were tortured severely in attempts made to get them to sign confessions.
View Photos of POWS in TTT Photo Gallery
NOTE: These are all the POWs the Author has knowledge of. Any other 2x2s who were imprisoned in wars were not intentionally omitted. Please email details to the author, and their names will be included here.
WORLD WAR II - EVACUATION of CHILDREN: During the early days of WWII, the UK evacuated many English children. Some Friends opened their homes to UK children of 2x2 parents. Jack Carroll wrote, "We are glad to know that a number have offered to care for children that may come over from the British Isles…" In 1940, Neville Sanders was in standing line with other UK children to board the SS City of Benares, when his father changed his mind and removed him from the group, and said, "You are not going–if we have to be killed in the bombing, we will all go together." The ship Neville was to sail on was torpedoed and 77 UK children died. (Account by Neville Sanders, UK, 2001).
CONVENTIONS DURING WWII: "During the war, the Conventions (in Great Britain) were stopped, as the white tents could easily be seen from the air by enemy aircraft. Instead, Special Meetings were held similar to those held at Christmas" (Personal Communication from Neville Sanders, UK, 2001).
EMPLOYMENT: Some 2x2 civilians worked in ammunition factories and aircraft plants, whose products assisted in taking lives in the war. The Author’s professing Mother worked for 2-1/2 years as an inspector for Gulf Oil, at a shell-loading plant. The shells manufactured there went to the front lines. She wore a blue uniform, the color designated for inspectors, accessorized with black stockings! The Workers did not comment to her about her employment. Many of the Friends had better jobs due to the war.
"It always struck me as strange though, that while no one was supposed to bear arms and kill, it was acceptable, even laudable, to produce munitions. In Montreal, all the Northern Electric (now Nortel) plants were converted to munitions plants and most of the Friends, mainly female, worked there. For reaching quotas, employees were awarded lapel pins which consisted of a small caliber shell with a pin attached. The Friends wore these pins very proudly, even to Meeting!" (Statement by Leigh Townsend, Quebec, Canada)WWII VETERAN REUNIONS: There have been several reunions of professing American veterans. One was held in 1989 in Sioux Falls, South Dakota for the 2x2 Camp Barkeley, Texas veteran servicemen (World War II Reunion - 1989 Memory Book – Camp Barkeley, TX). In 1992, the group met again, and also invited any servicemen who served in WWII who were professing (World War II Reunion – 1992 Memory Book – Sioux Falls, SD). In 1995, a WWII reunion was held in Charleston, South Carolina. "Effort was made to contact all who were veterans now of same faith” (World War II Reunion – Memory Book; Charleston, SC; April 19-21, 1995). In 1999, another WWII reunion was held at Sparks, Nevada. All 2x2 veterans who were of same faith were invited (1999 World War II – Reunion Memory Book; Sparks, NV, April 13-15, 1999).
THE KOREAN CONFLICT began on June 25, 1950, when troops from Communist ruled North Korea invaded South Korea. Troops were sent by 14 UN countries, and 41 countries sent military equipment and supplies to South Korea, with the U.S. providing more than 90% of troops, equipment and supplies. The Korean Conflict ended a little over three years after it started, on July 27, 1953. At least one professing man, the late Robert E. Neely, went to prison in the Korean Conflict: “During this time (Korean conflict), I was in prison for 23 months, due to problems with my C.O. status” (World War II – Reunion Memory Book; Charleston, SC; April 19-21, 1995; p. 58) Reportedly, in 1996 and 2001, there were reunions held for the Korean Conflict Veterans in San Antonio, Texas.
THE VIETNAM WAR (1959-1975): In 1954, Vietnam was divided into North and South Vietnam, with the Communist ruling the North under President Ho Chi Minh. In 1957, the Viet Cong began to rebel against the South Vietnam government headed by President Ngo Dinh Diem. North Vietnam supported the revolt, which grew into a major conflict. In 1965, the U.S. became involved, and American participation continued until 1973. The U.S., South VN and the Communists signed a cease-fire agreement and the U.S. removed its troops. However, the Communists soon launched another offensive against South VN, and in April 1975, Saigon fell to the Communists.
The Selective Service Act passed in 1948 was amended in 1951, and required that conscientious objection be based on religious belief and training that included belief in a Supreme Being. A series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions during the Vietnam War removed this religious requirement and allowed objection based on a deeply held ethical system, with no reference to a Supreme Being.
When the Americans entered the VN War, Jack Carroll had passed away, and his instructions giving professing men freedom of choice regarding their military service classification were not carried forward. Nationwide, the U.S. Workers were in agreement and encouraged all drafted American professing young men to become C.O.s, and most did so. Ex-2x2 Vietnam War Veteran Frank Kelly wrote, "Why did the vast majority of Friends entering the draft seek C.O. status? I sought such status in the belief I was obeying a tenant of a system of universal truth, which, by definition was a requirement for all people" (Chapter 11, Reflected Truth; compiled by Joan F. Daniel; pub. Research & Information Services, Sisters, OR, 1996).
During the VN War, the U.S. required all men between the ages of 18 and 26 to register. Only the Army drafted. Any men who voluntarily enlisted in other branches of the service could not be C.O.s. Most C.O.'s were sent to Ft. Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas, commonly known as "Ft. Sam," for basic and medical training. This included hundreds of young professing 2x2 men who enjoyed fellowship and good times with other young men of like faith that resulted in many lifelong friendships. Some roomed together off campus. The Fellowship Meetings swelled, and at one time there were 165 professing soldiers based at Ft. Sam. In 1992, a reunion was held in San Antonio, Texas, for 2x2 soldiers who went through Ft. Sam between 1965 and 1972 (Ft. Sam Houston Army Reunion – 1965-1972 – Memory Book; San Antonio, Texas). Reportedly, on July 4-8, 2001, another Ft. Sam reunion was held there also. At least 14 Brother Workers went through Ft. Sam as C.O.s.
In 1967, Dominic (Nick) Enrietta was denied a ministerial exemption in a hearing in Denver, Colorado. Dominic professed in 1962, graduated high school in 1963, entered the work in Sept. 1964, and had been a Worker for three years when he was drafted at age 22. He was inducted into the U.S. Army as a C.O., and after his discharge, preached in Italy. Click Here to read newspaper articles: Denver Post, July 12, 1967; Rocky Mountain News, Circuit Preacher Seeks Ministerial Exemption, July 12, 1967, p. 5; and Lawsuit Puts Sect in Shunned Limelight, July 15, 1967, p. 1.
At least one other 2x2 soldier who received newspaper publicity during the Vietnam War was David Kropp, from Caddo, Oklahoma. Tom Tiede, a nationally syndicated newspaper reporter, interviewed David in Cu Chi, VN, from the perspective of being a Conscientious Objector serving as a front-line combat medic in the 25th Infantry. The resulting article was published in numerous U.S. newspapers in 1966-67, some on the front page. David received two bronze stars, two purple hearts and left the 2x2 Church in 1991.
Many 2x2 VN veterans visited Brother Worker, Fred Allen, in Saigon, and some attended Fellowship Meetings and Convention in Saigon. There were five U.S. professing men who died in the Vietnam War. The first man was Timothy E. Workman on Jan. 18, 1967, from Washington, who was killed while on a perimeter patrol guard when he stepped on a grenade; also Ronald C. Stallings on Dec. 10, 1967, from Kentucky; Ronald A. Slane on March 2, 1968, from Oregon; Allan E. Schwartz on Oct. 25, 1968, from Nebraska, and Donald W. Sperl on May 8, 1968, from Alaska (Ft. Sam Houston Army Reunion 1965-1972 Memory Book; San Antonio, Texas; June 17-19, 1992; Pioneer Printing Co., St. Louis, MO).
Telling the Truth has a hard copy of the documents, books, newspaper articles, references, etc. used in this book. Any exceptions are noted with an asterisk (*).
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