Workers, Friends, Home Church, The Truth, The Way, Meetings, Gospel, Cooneyites, Christian Conventions, Hymns Old & New
Preserving the Truth
The Church without a Name and its Founder, William Irvine

Introduction Index of Chapters
Chapter Links
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Bio Truth?

Chapter 34
Revised April 19, 2018


Workers First Arrived in Australia
About the Australian State Head Workers
1939: Arthur McCoy's Grievances
1947-1952: Ron Campbell Controversy
1951: Purge in South Australia
1955: Purge in Victoria
1953: Death of Wm. (Bill) Carroll
1954: Guildford Meeting & Report
1957: Willie Donaldson Arrived
Appendix J: Guildford Report and Withdrawal

Read Australian Newspaper Articles.

NOTE: The Author has chosen to use the dates shown on Ship Passenger Records from, since historical Accounts contain conflicting dates and memories are unreliable.
Read historical Accounts about first Workers in Australia at: Pioneering Workers of Australia & New Zealand.

PIONEERS of AUSTRALIAN STATES: (in alphabetical order by states)

NEW SOUTH WALES (NSW): John Hardie and Richard (Dick) McClure in 1907
QUEENSLAND (QLD): John Sullivan and Jack Little in 1906
SOUTH AUSTRALIA (SA): Adam Hutchison and Jim McCreight in 1908
TASMANIA (TAS): Annie Smith and Fanny Carroll in 1908-1910 (and maybe others).
VICTORIA (VIC): Adam Hutchison, Willie Hughes, Charlie Dubman and Archie/Arthur Murray in 1907
WESTERN AUSTRALIA (WA): Tom Turner and Jim McCreight; Laura Falkiner and Aggie Hughes in 1906

AUSTRALIAN STATE HEAD WORKERS: All the first Australian Head Workers were from the British Isles (affectionately called "the Old Country") and came to Australia between 1904 and 1908, and pioneered an Australian state. They were:

NSW: John Hardie 1907-1961; Joe Williamson 1961-1963; Gordon McNab 1963-1994; Dan McNab 1994-1995; Clyde McKay 1995-2016; Alan Kitto 2016--
SA: Adam Hutchison 1907-1922; Willie Hughes 1922-1941-44?; John Baartz 1944-1964; Robert Barbour 1964- ??; Stan Cornthwaite dates?? ; Alan Kitto circa 2007
VIC: Adam Hutchison 1907-1909; Wilson McClung 1909-1913; Bill Carroll 1913-1953; Willie Donaldson 1957-1985; Evan Jones 1987-2001
QLD: John Sullivan 1906-1924; Thomas Turner 1924-1959; Archie Turner 1959-1972; Albert Barnes 1972- 2002; Ray Corbett 2002-died 6/27/14; Malcolm Clapham 2014-current
WA: Tom Turner 1906-1924; Ted Terry 1924-1928; Nestor Ferguson 1928-1938; Willie Phyn 1939; Sam Jones 1939-1946; Walter Schloss 1950-1955: Bert Cameron 1956-1964; Clem Geue 1964-1979; Bill Macourt 1979- 2007-08; Peter Doecke 2009-
TAS: Adam Hutchison 1914 to 1922; Sam Jones 1922-1938; Chris Williams 1925-1955; ?? 1956-1961 Chris: 1962-68

1904, JULY: THE FIRST TWO WORKERS ARRIVED IN AUSTRALIA were John Hardie, an engineer from Kilsyth, Scotland, age 33, and his companion Alex (Sandy) Alexander, age 28. Both men entered the work in 1900. A misfortune paved their way to Australia. Someone maliciously burned down a portable wooden hall John was using for a Mission, and the County's payment for damages paid their fare to Australia. They arrived in Melbourne, VIC, on July 24, 1904, aboard the SS Medic, and were the very first two Workers to set foot on Australian soil.

1905, OCTOBER 11: NINE WORKERS ARRIVED IN MELBOURNE, VIC, aboard the SS Geelong. However, they did not remain long in Australia. Eight disembarked and boarded other ships for New Zealand. Wm Irvine continued to Adelaide, SA.

1906, JANUARY 4: SIX WORKERS CAME TO AUSTRALIA on the SS Oroya. Four of them disembarked at Freemantle, WA: Tom Turner (27), Jim McCreight (24), Laura Falkiner (27) and Aggie Hughes (27 - sister to Willie Hughes). They pioneered WA. The other two, John Sullivan (31) and Jack Little (27), continued on to Brisbane, QLD, arriving on Jan. 19. 1906. Syd Maynard and Mrs. Burgess were the only two converts in QLD and WA from 1906 to 1908.

1906, MARCH 19: WM. IRVINE departed from Sydney, NSW, for Vancouver, BC, on SS Moana, after spending about five months in Australia.

1907, JANUARY 2: TWO SISTER WORKERS, Polly Hodgins (25) and Lizzie Sargeant (24), arrived in Brisbane aboard the SS Ortona, having sailed from London. They were the first Sister Workers to arrive in QLD and were responsible for the first converts who professed in 1907. In late 1907, John Hardie visited QLD and baptized these converts.

1907, MARCH 16: SIX BROTHER WORKERS ARRIVED IN MELBOURNE, VIC aboard the SS Moeraki. All but one were from the UK and had been preaching in NZ. They were: Willie Hughes, Charlie Dubman, John Hardie, Richard (Dick) McClure, Adam Hutchison and Arthur/Archie Murray, from NZ. Two of them, John Hardie and Dick McClure, sailed on to Sydney and pioneered NSW, where the first to profess were Ruth and Ethel Harrison. The other four Workers stayed and pioneered VIC. The first VIC convert was Ada Cousins who went in the work. By March 1907, there were 14 Workers in four Australian States, 13 from the UK and one from NZ.

1908 FEBRUARY: The SS Orontes sailed from London on Dec. 27, 1907, and arrived in Melbourne, VIC in February in time for the March 1908 first Convention ever held in Australia, at Northcote, VIC (a suburb of Melbourne). Aboard were Sam Jones (30), Bob Bashford, Sam McMullen, Sam Jones, and Sandy Hinds. Four made a start in the Work: Sid Maynard from WA, Ethel Harrison and Flora Finch from NSW and Ada Cousins from Victoria. About 26 Workers attended, including six who had come over from New Zealand . At this time there were probably more Workers than Saints in Australia. Twelve months later this was not the case.

In April, Sam Jones, Bob Bashford, Tom Turner and Syd Maynard sailed on to Fremantle WA. By 1908, there were Workers laboring in all the Australian States, which were pioneered in this order: WA and QLD in 1906; VIC and NSW in 1907; and SA and TAS in 1908.

NSW 19__ : held at ---------??
QLD 1910: held at Mt. Gravatt 1910-1917.
SA 1909 April: held at Woodside at Mrs. Alf Harris' place; April, 1910, second held at Woodside at Wuttkes.
VIC 1908 March: FIRST Convention ever held in Australia was at Northcote, VIC.
TASMANIA 1909, 1910, 1911: held at Evandale.
WA 1915 & 1916, March: held between homes of Radfords and Jacobs in Bassendean, then known as West Guildford.

ABOUT THE AUSTRALIAN STATE HEAD WORKRS: (in alphabetical order by state)

NEW SOUTH WALES: John Hardie was born January 20, 1870, in Scotland, and was about age 34 when he and Sandy Alexander arrived in Australia in 1904, they held a tent Mission at Oakleigh , with no response. Sandy left John at this time. According to one Account: "Around 1904–05, John Hardie and another Worker went to Australia. They lived in a tent where they used one half of the tent for their living quarters and the other half for Meetings. One day a big storm came and totally ripped their tent to shreds. They then spread newspapers on the ground and slept on them. One day the elder Worker [John Hardie] woke to find his companion gone with all their money."

After two hard months in Australia, on September 24, 1904, John travelled to Wellington, NZ, to the home of his Irish friend, Tom Hastings, who with his wife Emily, had immigrated from Ire. in 1901. Possibly, John held some Gospel Meetings there and some may have professed. Little is known about John's activities for the next year. A little over a year later, in November 1905, John and Sandy turned up together and helped Maggie McDougall and Frances Hodgins in a Mission at Hutt, near Wellington. It is not known how Sandy and John came together again or where either spent the previous 14 months. There was good response in the Hutt Mission, but there was strong Brethren opposition, and Sandy was influenced to leave the Work and preach for the Brethren.

In March 1907, John Hardie and Dick McClure travelled from NZ to Sydney, Aust. and pioneered NSW. John Hardie was the NSW Head Worker from 1907 to 1961, or for 54 years, the longest held oversight in Australia. He was THE senior Worker over ALL Australia until his death in April, 1961, aged 91. He was buried in Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW (Zone F, Independent General Section K, No. 1475). His tombstone shows his name incorrectly spelled as "Hardy." Dick McClure left the work in 1913, married and had five children. Reportedly John Hardie did not speak to him again until shortly before John died.

QUEENSLAND: John Sullivan: John was born in 1874, was from Dunmanway, Co. Cork, Ire. and was a school teacher when he entered the work in 1900. John and Jack Little arrived in Brisbane on January 19, 1906. Their first couple of years in Australia were very hard, with no converts and Jack deserted John. John went to QLD when his sister's husband died and built a home for her. John was the Head Worker of QLD from 1906 until his unexpected death in 1924, aged 50. He wrote one hymn in 1987 Edition of "Hymns Old & New." Newspaper article about John.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA: Willie John Hughes was born April 23, 1880, in Rathmolyon, Co. Meath, Ire. and was a purser in the navy when he professed in 1905 and went in the Work 1906. He and three others came were the first to pioneer South Australia in March 1907. He had the oversight of SA from 1918 to 1944, and the oversight of NZ from 1944 to 1966, where he died. Further details about him are in the preceding chapter.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA/VICTORIA/TASMANIA: Adam Dickson Hutchison was born Sept. 10, 1873, in Lauder, Berwickshire, Scotland. Adam worked with his father as a blacksmith and then as a Colporteur with the Faith Mission before he professed in 1900, went in the work in 1902 and came to Ireland in 1903. He went to NZ in Oct. 1905 with the first group of Workers and he and Joe Williamson with two Sister Workers were the first to go to the South Island in NZ. In 1907, Adam, along with three others left NZ and pioneered VIC. His sister, Aggie Hutchison, also labored in Aust.

In 1908, Adam and Jim McCreight pioneered SA. McCreight entered the work in the UK in 1904 and left after two years in Australia. Jimmy Vallance from NZ replaced McCreight. Adam had the oversight of SA until 1915, when he became the Head Worker of Tasmania from 1915 to 1922. He then became the first Worker to go to India. He died Jan. 19, 1925, aged 51, in Burma of smallpox. Adam wrote about 15 hymns in 1987 Ed. of "Hymns Old & New. "

VICTORIA: William (Bill) Charles Carroll and his wife, Margaret (Maggie) Elizabeth (Hastings) Carroll. Bill was born Aug. 15, 1876, in Newtown, Moynalthy, Kels, Co. Meath, Ireland. Maggie was born on Apr. 20, 1875, in Co. Meath. They married on June 6, 1901, in the Rathmolyon Church of Ireland. Their daughter May was born May 31, 1902. She was never in the work, although she is shown in various Worker photos with her parents. She married Adolphus Harry ("Dolph") Schulz from QLD, who was born in 1896 and was in the work for a few years in the early 1920s. They resided in Melbourne, VIC, Aust. May died in Aug. 1991 and Dolph in Feb. 1987. May is the author of nine hymns in the 1987 Ed. of "Hymns Old & New." View Photographs of Carrolls. Bill was the eldest of six siblings, four of whom entered the work. Maggie's brother was Tom Hastings who immigrated to NZ.

Bill and Maggie Carroll entered the work in 1903 and preached in the UK before departing for Sydney, NSW, aboard the SS Orsova on Oct. 24, 1913, with May, age 11 years. In 1913, Bill assumed the VIC oversight from Wilson McClung (who assumed the oversight in NZ) and remained there for 40 years, or until his death. Maggie died in 1942, aged 67, and Bill died in 1953, aged 77. After much controversy, Willie Donaldson assumed the oversight of VIC from 1957 to 1985. NOTE: The Account of Mary (Lizzie) Coles gives an incorrect date of 1899 when the Carrolls entered the work (two years before they were married in 1901). It also gives an incorrect birth date for May. See Morning Leader, June 15, 1906.

VICTORIA: Wilson and Annie McClung entered the work in Nov. 1903 as a married Worker couple from Co. Armagh, Ire. They professed through Wm. Irvine in 1898 in Galway, Ire. Wilson was born in 1868 and Annie was born 1871. They came to Australia in 1908 and Wilson had the oversight of Victoria until 1913, when Bill Carroll assumed the role. Wilson McClung then assumed the oversight of New Zealand until his death in 1944. More details about them are in preceding chapter.

TASMANIA: From March 1908 - 1910, Annie Smith and Fanny Carroll pioneered the Work in Tasmania, where Adam Hutchison was the Head Worker from 1914 to 1922; and Sam Jones from 1922 to 1939. Fanny left Australia in 1910 for a home visit after which she went to labor in Western U.S. where her brother Jack had the oversight, where she was much loved and continued in the Work until her death in her nineties.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA: Thomas McCausland Turner was born September 1, 1877, in Swatragh, Maghera, Co. Londonderry, Ire. to Wm. and Melisina (Bateman) Turner. Tom was a schoolteacher when he professed in 1898. He entered the Work in 1899, and was one of the first four men to commit to the Work full time. In Jan. 1906, Tom arrived in WA with James McCreight, Laura Falkiner and Aggie Hughes. In 1908, Sam Jones, Bob Bashford and Syd Maynard came to WA. The first few years in WA were very hard, and James McCreight, left the work. In 1908, Laura and Aggie went to Victoria. The three remaining Brother Workers attended the first SA Convention at Woodside in March 1909, and no Workers returned to WA until about 1911, when Annie Smith and Bess Pattison ventured there. Grace Snowball was the first Sister Worker to enter the Work in WA. She and her mother were among the first to profess there in 1912. No Brother Workers returned to WA until 1915, when Tom Turner and Sid Maynard returned. Tom left WA to take the oversight of QLD from 1924 until his death. He wrote three hymns in 1987 Ed. of "Hymns Old & New." Tom died April 19, 1959, aged 81, and is buried in Brisbane, QLD, Mt. Gravatt Cemetery (MON4e, isle 6, plot 508).

WOMEN PIONEERS: The two Australian states of TAS and WA were pioneered by women. Laura Falkiner and Aggie Hughes, from Ire. pioneered WA in 1906 with Tom Turner and Jim McCreight. Syd Maynard professed in 1906 through Laura and Aggie. Laura was from Borrisokane, Ire. professed in 1898, and entered the work in 1902. Apart from a few years in VIC and one in QLD, she spent all her years in WA, active in the Work until she died in 1967, aged 91. Annie Smith and Fanny Carroll pioneered Tasmania 1908-1910. Annie Smith later married Wilfred Heyes. 1913 Testimonial Letters of Australia Sister Workers: Fanny Carroll, Annie Smith, Hannah Alexander, Queenie Higgins, Lizzie Sargent, Agnes Hutchison.

WA: Syd Maynard professed in 1906 when he was twenty years old. He was the first to profess on the continent of Australia, as well as the first person to profess in WA. In 1908, Syd was also the first native Australian to become a Worker. He labored in WA and SA for 10 years and in India where he spent 29 years. After Adam Hutchison died in 1925, Syd had the oversight of India after until his death in 1954, aged 68. Syd Maynard's Testimony

Samuel (Sam) Jones was born 1887 in Portadown, Co. Armagh, Ire. and was a landscape gardener. He entered the work in 1902. He and some other Brother Workers arrived in Melbourne, VIC aboard the SS Orontes in Feb. 1908. On April 8, 1908, Sam Jones and three other Brother Workers sailed from to Fremantle, WA. Their WA pioneering days were very difficult. Sam's companion, Bob Bashford, became so discouraged that Sam gave him all their money and he left. Sam struggled on alone, sleeping in a dry riverbed and became ill. Some gypsies found him and took care of him until he recovered. Sam spent one year in WA, then preached in SA until 1914 when he went to VIC. In 1921 he became Head Worker of TAS until 1939. He returned to WA where he was Head Worker from 1939 to 1946. Sam died of heart failure on April 14, 1946, aged 68, in Rockingham, WA. He was the author of the most hymns (over 100) printed in "Hymns Old & New," and has been called "The Sweet Psalmist of Israel." The high point of Sam's Missions was the 1910 Bethel Mission in SA.

1910 BETHEL MISSION, SA: The first German settlers came to SA for religious freedom and to be able to follow Lutheranism. Some settled in Bethel, SA, where a number of German stock professed. Some family names were: Geues, Vogts, Schmidts, Matzs, Doeckes, Loechels, Punkes, Schuberts, Schillings, Eisens, etc. Many notes of talks or sermons by Clem Geue have circulated in America about the Bethel Mission held by Sam Jones. In a church service, the Lutheran pastor began speaking evil and telling lies about the Workers. One man jumped up and walked out the door of the Bethel Lutheran church and 23 others followed him. "That same night he (Sam) gave them opportunity to declare their support of the Gospel that he and Jim had preached to them, and the same 24 raised hands..." (Bethel Mission in South Australia).

Otto Schmidt, who professed in the 1910 Bethel Mission, was the first Australian Worker to go to a foreign country to preach. He and Jim Jardine went to Germany in 1913. In the 1920s, Australia had more than 100 who started in the Work, more than any other decade. This number included about 40 who went to North America; over 30 who went to India, Ceylon or Burma; and about 12 who went to Europe, mostly to Germany.

LEAFLET:  A supplementary hymnbook called the "Leaflet," containing about 12-19 hymns was introduced in the 1940s in SA by John Baartz, who loved music. It was used there for nearly 50 years. In 1941, Bill Carroll introduced a Leaflet titled "Supplementary Hymns for Field and Fold." Leaflets in VIC were used for about 25 years. In America, the Leaflet was used by Jack Carroll, but not George Walker.

Some editions of Hymns Old and New have been printed in Australia. In 1917, a words only hymnbook was printed with No. 1 being A Ruler once Came and ending with No. 226 Why Should I Fear, printed by The Cumberland Times Publishing Office, Parramatta NSW. Another was printed in 1913 or 1918, with Hymn No. 1 being A Ruler Once Came, and ending with No. 233 Why should I fear the darkest hour, printed by The Cumberland of George Street. Another Hymnbook was printed in 1921 with No. 1 being As we gather now together and ending with No. 233 Why should I fear the darkest hour, printed in Parramatta, Sydney, NSW. In 1919, R. L. Allan in Scotland published a new Edition, which was used worldwide.

MILITARY - AUSTRALIA:  In 1901, the six colonies became states of the Commonwealth of Australia, retaining the British monarch as head of state. When Britain entered both WWI and WWII, Australia entered the war on the side of Great Britain.

ADOPTING A NAME:  During WWI, Australian professing men used the name "Testimony of Jesus" in hearings applying for military exemption or CO status (Nov. 21, 1916 The Register, Adelaide and Nov. 24, 1916, Barrier Miner (Broken Hill) newspapers.) In VIC, beginning in 1929 or earlier, the name of "Christian Assemblies of Victoria" was used. In SA "...they adopted the name CAA (Christian Assemblies of Australia) in the second World War in order to get petrol coupons, etc" (Memories of Margaret Vogt).

In SA on April 20, 1928, Head Worker Willie Hughes, certified on letterhead of "The United Christian Conventions of Australasia and New Zealand" that Brother Worker Ron Campbell was "an ordained minister of the Gospel labouring in fellowship with a body of Christians assuming this name only." Ron took issue with the name Workers assumed for their Church in America.  He wrote:  "I cannot understand the honesty of any preacher out preaching in the name of Jesus and associated with the 'Christian Conventions Assuming This Name only.'  This word 'only' rules out all other names, so by right they cannot be honest and use the name of Jesus at all."  

According to Fred Hanowell, some time prior to 1957, the senior Workers wrote a letter of registration for "The United Christian Conventions, Representing Assemblies of Christians Assuming That Name Only" that listed all the countries in the world where there were active Workers and Friends.

"In Australia, for instance, the fellowship split into three divisions, two of them united again, calling themselves, 'The United Christian Conventions, Representing Assemblies of Christians Assuming That Name Only.' "  I got to know about it at my first Convention around South Germany. It gave me a terrible shock as I read that letter which informed me of the 'Name-giving' and 'Registration'...I have a copy of a letter set up by those older Workers, in which all countries are mentioned in which Workers were at that time, Germany included, also the number or how many Workers were active there. Hence ALL countries and ALL believers in every land were included in that registration and NAME GIVING" (Letter to Fred and Ruth Miller by Fred Hanowell, circa 1971).

In 1917, "Wilson McClung, head evangelist of a body known as The Testimony of Jesus Christ," stated to the Military Service Board that there were 2,500 adherents in Australia and 74 evangelists (The Dominion, July 26, 1917 p. 9).

The 1928 Australian Workers Convention was held in Sydney, NSW, for two days in January, at which all the Workers in the country (about 120) attended. A number of changes were made. 1927 had been an exceptional year for the Work, with 23 new names on the Australian Workers Lists. Jack Carroll (brother to Bill Carroll) was present from the Western USA. A number of changes and transfers were made in all states. (This was before Ed Cooney was excommunicated in Nov. 1928.)

The 1964 Australian Workers Convention was held in Sydney, NSW, in January 1964, and the Senior Worker present was Jack Jackson. A number of transfers of Workers were made between the states. Mary Turner was sent back to New Zealand—but left the work instead.

BLACK STOCKINGS: 1935 the practice of wearing Black Stockings was discontinued by most professing women. Reportedly, this was principally due to May Carroll from the USA visiting the Australian Conventions that year wearing light stockings. Her brother, Bill Carroll, was Overseer of Victoria, Aust. Brother Worker, Robert Chambers, was also visiting from the US that year and he supported her by comparing Black Stockings to Salvation Army uniforms.

ARTHUR MCCOY'S GRIEVANCES (South Australia) - In the spring of 1906, Adam Hutchison and Jim McCreight arrived in Adelaide, SA and made their way on foot some 20 miles to Woodside, where they held the FIRST Mission in SA. The first SA Convention was held in 1909 at Mrs. Alf Harris' place in Woodside. The local people were very hostile, and hoodlums interfered with the Convention by throwing rotten eggs. The following SA Conventions (1910-1926) were held at Wuttke's farm at Woodside.

Arthur McCoy was from SA. Apparently Jim Gordon and Jim Vallance had some open-air meetings at Wattle Flat and Yankalilla shortly before the 1912 or 1913 Woodside Convention. Arthur and his mother attended the Convention. Arthur professed and entered the Work in 1914. He preached in TAS under Adam Hutchison until 1921. Workers suffered and endured severe hardship while laboring in the outback country areas of Australia. For three years, Arthur and his companion lived in very rough huts, and drank water from creeks and roadside tanks. Workers were forbidden to carry a change of clothing, so they were often wet and washed and dried their one set of clothes as best they could. They wore holes through their boots. Not having ten shillings for a dentist to fix a damaged tooth, Arthur filed it off himself–it abscessed later.

In 1922, Arthur went to preach in NSW where John Hardie was in charge. After the 1923 Convention, John collected all the money Workers had, and handed back to each one two pounds plus transportation fare for some. Arthur wrote: “We were so short that most of the time we lived on about three shillings and sixpence a week for both of us for food. In an old bucket we found we made thin apple jam from windfall apples and a little sugar. We were so thin that our clothes hung on us…Weeks behind with rent...we cut 22 tons of boiler wood at three shillings and sixpence a ton, and packed loads of blue-gum leaves into containers...we repaired and erected an old windmill...mended cartwheels..."

When Adam Hutchison heard they had worked to earn money for food and rent when reduced to severe straits, he said it was a “travesty of Matthew 10,” and asked them not to go to work again. Arthur reminded him that Paul wrote of working in necessity, but Adam made no reply.

When Arthur felt pain in his right leg, the doctor at Armidale, NSW, who examined him immediately sent him to the hospital where he was operated upon, as a charity case. The doctor instructed them to feed him well: “This man is dying because he is starving to death.” Arthur believed his health had broken down largely due to the unnecessary hardships and poverty he suffered while in the Work in NSW under John Hardie’s oversight. He blamed Hardie for his hip being permanently crippled and rigid after eight surgeries resulting in him being unable to ride a bicycle. He and his companion travelled on a Harley Davidson motorcycle with a sidecar, furnished by Arthur’s brother Keith (See photograph).

Not long after his hospital discharge, John Hardie took Arthur with him to the Christian Workers' Depot in Sydney to try and stop the printing of the booklet titled: “Go-Preachers or Cooneyites.” John told Mr. Ardill the reason for their visit was because there were 14 lies in the booklet. Mr. Ardill assured him that they would not publish anything that was not true, and he noted in the booklet margin the items John said were false. The main issue John objected to in the booklet was that there was a “central fund” (Go-Preachers or Cooneyites by John McDonald).

WORKERS' BANK ACCOUNTS: In 1927, Arthur returned to his home state SA and labored under Willie Hughes' oversight until 1939. Arthur's mother told her neighbor about her Preachers who were lowly, poor, unlike other church preachers, without bank accounts. However, two of the neighbor's family were employed at a bank where there was a trust account in Arthur McCoy's name. Arthurs’ mother was quite distressed when she was so reliably informed about the existence of a bank account in Arthur's name.

Arthur was astounded! He discovered the Workers had “central funds” after all. There was a joint account at the National Bank of Australasia, Ltd titled: "John Christian Baartz & Arthur McCoy Trust A/C." [View bank account statement.] John Baartz had succeeded Willie Hughes as SA Head Worker. It hurt Arthur that he had endured and suffered so much, and all along there had been money available, deposited in HIS very own name that could have been used to save his health. While he had barely survived on a mere pittance, with no change of clothes, often wet, hungry, sick, in pain, sleeping in the open, the Head Workers actually had "a central fund." He was very disappointed in John Hardie 's insistence that the booklet's claim was a lie that there was “a central fund."

Arthur was unable to accept the indifference shown by John Hardie and Willie Hughes to the shocking living conditions and health challenges of Workers who were suffering needlessly. Arthur urged them to review the policy of sending Workers out to preach under conditions he viewed as being contrary to the mind of Christ. Arthur did much to make the Australian Friends and Workers aware of the pitiful, deplorable conditions under which the Australian Workers often labored. It is not known if Arthur’s pleas fell on deaf ears—or made a difference. Hopefully, his outcry to this great injustice made a difference and the Workers reviewed their methods and made changes to alleviate the needless suffering. In spite of his good intentions to alleviate the suffering of others, Arthur was considered by many Friends and Workers to be bitter, obsessed, eccentric and fanatical. His reputation was maligned, and he bore much reproach, as he valiantly attempted to, “make his paths straight” (Matt. 3:3).

After his hard experiences, Arthur no longer believed Jesus intended for future preachers to follow the Matthew 10 method forever. He believed the commands of Matthew 10 were given against the background of Jewish social customs at the time of Christ; and that the law and customs of Israel provided for messengers and prophets to go empty handed and to be treated as guests. However, there was no such assurance for 20th century preachers who were literally following Wm. Irvine's Matthew 10 experiment. Arthur did not believe the senior Workers had correctly interpreted the scriptures. He wrote: “…commandments given to the apostles…should not have been taken out of its proper time and situation…This 'way'…can be seen to be in effect a parody, a travesty, a clumsy and poor imitation of the work into which Christ Jesus called the 12 apostles. It should be admitted honestly that many suffered needlessly for not discerning the true time, situation, circumstances and reasons for the set of instructions Christ gave to the apostles.”

In 1939 when he was about 50 years old, Arthur left the 2x2 Work and Fellowship. His mother, brother and sister left also. Until his death in the 1970’s, Arthur openly criticized the Workers having bank accounts and their method of following Matthew 10. Some time after he left the work, Arthur married. He wrote and distributed several letters and lengthy statements written mostly in the years 1955-56 and 1969-71 which provided a vivid picture of some hardships experienced by the Australian Workers in the country areas between the years 1913 and 1939 (Secret Sect, by Parker pp. 38-45).

1949: RONALD (Ron) IAN CAMPBELL (SA) - In 1911, when Ron was a child, his mother and three sisters professed at Mannanarie, SA Convention. Ron entered the work in 1926 under Willie Hughes. In 1928, Ron and Jim Wingfield went to labor under Jack Carroll in America. In 1947, after WWII, Ron made a home visit to Australia. When he returned to his field in Idaho, he was shocked to find the Friends and Workers had turned against him and Jack Carroll had put him out of the Work. When Ron asked the matter be handled according to Matt.18:15, Jack refused.

One reason given for why Jack Carroll expelled Ron from the Work was because Ron confronted Jack about his relationship with Linda Heyes, a Sister Worker. Reportedly, Howard Mooney told Ron that Howard's father thought Jack and Linda were secretly married, and Howard also believed it was true. Ron thought they should ask Jack about it, but Howard refused, saying, "If we face him up, you will be sent back to Australia, and I will be sent back to the print shop." So Ron, believing Jack was a true brother who had temporarily fallen, confronted Jack alone, and Jack put him out of the Work (Derkland's letter to Malcolm Graham and Willie Jamieson, circa 1955).

Ron returned to Australia in 1949, where for a time, he was allowed to preach on a limited basis but was not given a companion. In 1950, his relationship with the Workers seriously deteriorated when he began to openly criticize the Work in SA. Ron stood up against Willie Hughes, the former Head Worker of SA, for sexually harassing Ron's pretty sister Adelaide. Ron wrote: "Willie Hughes disgraced himself and let some of us down by his conduct, and my own family are amongst those who feel this the keenest...Willie later tried to assault her (Ron's sister)...she withstood him. She being offended later tried on two occasions to make things right, resulting that he further oppressed her to cover up his sin, and even used his position as her minister to crush her and justify himself" (letter to George Walker, Oct. 20, 1952). Shortly after their confrontation, Willie Hughes returned to NZ where he had the oversight.

In 1951, Ron returned to America for about a year and unsuccessfully tried to straighten matters out. George Walker denied Ron's request to preach in Eastern America. Ron returned to his family farm in SA and remained single. A United Church minister officiated at Ron's funeral on Dec. 16, 1978. He was survived by two sisters, ages 80 and 89, and was buried in a cemetery near his home.

1950s: THE PURGE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA – In the 1950s there was a purge of Friends in South Australia, but information is scarce and documents are few, leaving gaps and questions. Reportedly, there was a meeting in late Jan. 1951, during preparations for the Strathalbyn Convention where Ron and of some Fellowship Meeting Elders took issue with John Baartz. The former head Worker, Willie Hughes, was a visiting Worker that year. Tensions were running high, particularly at Strathalbyn Convention grounds, as the owners, the Doeckes, were sympathetic to Ron.

Then in June 1951, a meeting was held at Ernie Wirth's home in Tusmore, Adelaide, SA, where nine Elders met with Head Worker John Baartz and Ian Reed and "pleaded for love to reign....Soon after, these nine elders received letters stating that they and their families were to cease fellowship." For Walter Vogt, one of the nine elders, that judgment included ten of his immediate family. Some of the nine elders were Ernie Wirth, Con Doecke, Fred Ashman and Mr. Sharpe. About 70 friends were "stood down."

Others were given the choice of not associating with those "stood down"–or else leave meetings. Ian Reed went to Marg Vogt's parents and told them they had to either give up contact with their two daughters who had married into the Vogt family who had been put out of fellowship, or cease attending meetings. They left. Friends making contact with those who had been "stood down" risked being "stood down" themselves. Some of the affected families were: Vogts, Doeckes, Berritts, Sharpes, Wirths, Harrises, Bruses, Ashmans, Masons, Fergusons, Loechels and others. Some were Bethel Mission families. Only a few who left at that time returned later. All Ron Campbell's family left. (Margaret Vogt's Account) Ron wrote:

"...never before have [I] seen such a display of human and spiritual corruption in lies being told, false accusations, agreements broken, hate, bitterness, defiance and other unChristlike marks expressed. They are going like a storm hitting the country leaving behind them a trail of broken hearts, homes, churches and relatives, forcing people to submit to them–if not, they tell that they are cut off and doomed, stopping some from holding Meetings if they can, refusing them to attend Convention...telling them not to have anything to do with this one or that one, to walk off the street and out of the home if this one comes to see them. Christ is a secondary person. Workers are the supreme authority and gone as far as to say that no saint can receive anything from God unless it comes through the Workers" (letter to Geo. Walker, Oct. 20, 1952).

The closure in 1951 of the Strathalbyn Convention owned by Con and Daisy Doecke, a Bethel Mission family, was accommodated by holding two Conventions a year on the Oak Lodge, Kapunda grounds. Also, the first Wilmington Convention was held in Jan. 1952.

1950s: THE PURGE IN VICTORIA After his wife died in 1942, and for about the last 10 years of his life, Bill Carroll lived in a "permanent" residence provided by his daughter and husband, May and Dolph Schulz. Personal letters written by W. C. Carroll bear the address of: Greenhaven, Rosebud West, VIC, Aust., which is located about 80k south of Melbourne. In Bill's later years, "Two Sister Workers and a Brother stayed with him at Rosebud to look after him, when there were open homes who would gladly receive him and cater for his needs and do the superintending of his meals, necessitated by the fact that he was a diabetic. This went on for ten years. These Workers had no Gospel Meetings while at Rosebud" (Guildford Report, 1954).

A Worker overseeing a state from a permanent residence was disapproved by the other Aust. Head Workers. They also did not approve of Bill using Workers to tend to his physical needs when there were Friends willing to do so. In his latter years, Bill visited outside VIC less and less. Victoria was totally self-sufficient regarding Workers and had also sent a large number of Workers overseas. The amount of interchange between VIC and the other Australian states continued to decrease until it was almost isolated from the other states.

During the 1950s, Bill Carroll began excommunicating Friends in VIC, sometimes without providing a hearing or a reason to the victims. “Week after week numbers were put out including whole churches. No one knew why and appeals were sent to senior Workers to come over and help us, and give us a hearing" (Eileen Matz letter July 26, 1954*).  Parents along with their children were put out. Mervyn Schmidt, whose father was Otto Schmidt, wrote: “I professed at 12 yrs of age. At 13, in the 1950s, I was excommunicated, along with my parents and many others in the states of VIC and SA, as a result of a purge by Wm. Carroll. In my case, my only crime was I was the son of my father."

For about four years, separate Fellowship Meetings were held for the various divisions. Children and teenagers from the various divisions attended school together, but did not assemble together for fellowship at Meetings. Merv Schmidt wrote: "For approximately 4 years, about 16 of us met in our home, unofficially...with others who had been put out of fellowship....We were reinstated again after this with the help of George Walker, USA, and Jack Forbes from England..."

1953 NOVEMBER 13: WILLIAM (Bill) CARROLL DIED, having been the VIC Head Worker for 40 years, or since 1913. As A. Magowan phrased it, "Very soon reverberations of Australian thunders began rolling and crashing over the Bill's grave."

The oversight of the Work in VIC went to Chris Williams, who was at that time over the Work in Tasmania. Chris was from VIC and started in the work in 1914 in QLD. In 1918, he went to NSW; then to Tasmania for 1925–1955. There are two stories about how Chris was chosen to replace Bill Carroll. One was that the VIC Workers elected him. The other was that Bill designated Chris to be his replacement, and did not consult with the other Australian senior Workers, who thought "…the responsible Workers should have been consulted with regard to getting their approval of who should succeed our departed Brother in the oversight in Victoria."

In 1954, the divisions within the fold remained a continuing problem and some Australian senior Workers asked senior Workers from other countries for help. Meanwhile in 1954, Eddie Cooney (then 88 years old) travelled to Mildura, VIC, at the request of some 20 Outcasts there. In 1955, Jack Carroll, Jack Forbes and Geo. Walker arrived to help settle the disputes. They held Reconciliation Meetings in various locations where the Outcasts as a group could be reinstated without re-professing. There was a Reconciliation Meeting scheduled in Mildura. Cooney went to the meeting uninvited, with Jack Schmidt, owner of the Mildura Convention grounds and a few other Friends. Tom Turner met them at the door and turned Cooney away. His Friends left with him.

1954 GUILDFORD MEETING: About three months after Bill died, the two Senior Head Workers of Australia, John Hardie and Tom Turner, called a meeting of all the Head Workers of NZ and Australia at Guildford, NSW on Feb. 20-24, 1954. Guildford is near Sydney, NSW, and was the location of a Convention. This was the first meeting of the Heads of States in many years. "An elder's meeting of this sort had often been wished for and suggested in past years, but Wm. Carroll was not in agreement, not considering it necessary, stating that Conventions were sufficient…All States and New Zealand were asked to send a representative and each leader…"

Tom Turner led the Guildford Meeting at which there were 11 Workers present. They were: John Hardie, J. Williamson, Chris Williams, Walter Pickering, Willie J. Hughes, John C. Baartz, R. Les Hawse, W. Schloss, Alec R. Mitchell and Harry Morgan. Afterwards a Report of the Guildford Meeting was prepared. The major issues addressed concerned Bill Carroll's successor; the exchange of Workers within Australia; cooperation of VIC with the other Australia states; dealing with the Outcasts in VIC and SA; and the Rosebud dwelling, which "had been the cause of contention in other countries as well as Australia" (Guildford Report, 1954). 

The Workers "separated at Guildford with high hopes that unity and harmony would prevail and all would be well…Within a few days of the return to Victoria of Chris Williams and Walter Pickering, a meeting of the Victorian Workers was held at Dandenong to discuss the Guildford Report."  When the VIC Workers heard about the discussions at the Guildford meeting, they felt that "a personal attack had been made on the life and testimony of the late Wm. Carroll and that the meetings were held for that purpose."  They felt strongly that "it is not the right thing for any man or elder to interfere with another State." They viewed the meeting as an attempt by the other Heads of States to interfere with the work in VIC. The VIC Workers drew up a circular expressing their viewpoints which was signed by Chris Williams and delivered to the Churches in VIC. Some Conventions were cancelled. Workers from other Australian states intruded into VIC territory and visited. In 1955, two SA and three NZ Workers were sent to preach in VIC, but were not welcomed by many there.

Eventually Chris Williams wrote John Hardie that: "…a breach even greater, seems imminent…Could it not all not be withdrawn?" Again Geo. Walker, Jack Carroll and Jack Forbes traveled to Australia to help reconcile the situation. Over a year later, on April 20, 1955, all the senior Head Workers, including VIC indicated that they regretted their actions and unconditionally withdrew their statements. Three items they agreed upon were:

"Regarding the residence at Rosebud, we feel it is our duty to state that we cannot accept such an arrangement as a precedent that could be repeated."

"We would add that in our opinion, when an Overseer in any State or Country, through infirmities or other circumstances is unable to personally carry out his responsibilities, he should call to his aid a Brother who has the approval and confidence of his Brethren and who can eventually assume the oversight.

They would "...find an impartial Brother from overseas who will supervise and co-operate in the Oversight of the Work in Victoria for such time as may be considered necessary" (Report and Withdrawal of Guildford Report, Dandenong, VIC, April 20, 1955).

In late 1955, Chris Williams was replaced by Archie Turner, a Scotsman. Chris continued in the Work in VIC. However, the situation was too much for Archie, and he returned to Scotland. Jack Forbes came and acted as the interim Head Worker for about six months until Willie Donaldson, age 57, from Ireland, arrived in Aug. 1957. Willie was able to handle the situation and to restore some harmony to the Fellowship.

1957: WILLIE DONALDSON, NEW HEAD WORKER OF VICTORIA – Willie was born in Ireland in 1900 and entered the Work during the 1920s. In 1928, he pioneered the Work in Barbados, West Indies, and remained there for the next 30 years. In 1957, he assumed the oversight of VIC. He was sent to Australia with the difficult task of re-establishing unity among the Workers and Friends in VIC, as well as with the rest of the Australia states. He was successful, and was also greatly loved by the Workers and Friends who held him in high esteem. After a couple years, the separate conventions ceased and the Friends returned to common Conventions. Willie died in the West Indies in Feb. 1987, and Evan Jones became the Head Worker of VIC.

After two of the divisions were reunited, the word "United" was added to their letterhead: "The United Christian Conventions of Australasia and New Zealand."  View Letterhead. Reportedly, the following names were also used at times:  "Christian Assemblies of Victoria;"  "Christian Assemblies of Australia;" "Christian Conventions of Australia and New Zealand."

The black population in Australian are the Aborigines. Until 1973, Australia was under the White Australia Policy, and the Aborigines did not have much standing in the country. It has been suggested that overall, the Australian Workers have neglected the Aboriginal community as a target group. Reportedly, one Brother Worker wanted to preach to the Australian Aboriginals, but instead, was sent to preach in Africa. To their credit, Australian Workers preaching in foreign lands have been involved in numerous black/colored cultures. In 1958, Cooper Sandosham, from Malaysia, was the first dark skinned worker to visit Australia. He made a favorable, lasting impression at the Conventions he visited. He preached in Indonesia and North Borneo, and died in 1981, aged 64.

SHADES OF THE PAST:  Almost 50 years later, a parallel to the purges and divisions in South Australia and Victoria took place in Alberta, Canada, when over 21 churches were closed and numerous friends excommunicated at the direction of the Alberta Overseer, Willis Propp (Details in Chapter 32 and Account of Alberta).  Similar events took place in Vietnam in 2009-2014. (Details in Chapter 42 and Account of VN).

1960, JUNE 20: EDWARD COONEY DIED, aged 93, in Mildura, VIC, in the home of loyal Cooneyite followers, Richard and Emily Greenaway–32 years after his excommunication in 1928. (View Newspaper Article)

Telling the Truth has a hard copy of the documents, books, newspaper articles, references, etc. used in this book. Any exceptions are noted with an asterisk (*).

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